Landscape Architecture

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Everyone enjoys attractively designed residential areas, public parks, college campuses, shopping centers, golf courses, parkways, and industrial parks. Landscape architects design these areas so that they are not only functional but beautiful and compatible with the natural environment as well. They may plan the location of buildings, roads, and walkways and the arrangement of flowers, shrubs, and trees. Historic preservation and natural resource conservation and reclamation are other important objectives to which landscape architects may apply their knowledge of the environment as well as their design and artistic talents.

Landscape architects are hired by many types of organizations - from real estate development firms starting new projects to municipalities constructing airports or parks. They are often involved with the development of a site from its conception. Working with architects, engineers, scientists, and other professionals, they help determine the best arrangement of roads and buildings, and the best way to conserve or restore natural resources. Once these decisions are made, landscape architects create detailed plans indicating new topography, vegetation, walkways, and landscape amenities.

In planning a site, landscape architects first consider the nature and purpose of the project and the funds available. They analyze the natural elements of the site, such as the climate, soil, slope of the land, drainage, and vegetation. They observe where sunlight falls on the site at different times of the day and examine the site from various angles. They assess the effect of existing buildings, roads, walkways, and utilities on the project.

After studying and analyzing the site, they prepare a preliminary design. To account for the needs of the client as well as the conditions at the site, they may have to make many changes before a final design is approved. They must also take into account any local, state, or federal regulations, such as those protecting wetlands or historic resources.

An increasing number of landscape architects are using computer-aided design (CAD) systems to assist them in preparing their designs. Many landscape architects also use video simulation as a tool to help clients envision the proposed ideas and plans. For larger-scale site planning, landscape architects also use geographic information systems technology, a computer mapping system.

Throughout all phases of the planning and design, landscape architects consult with other professionals involved in the project. Once the design is complete, they prepare a proposal for the client. They produce detailed plans of the site, including written reports, sketches, models, photographs, land-use studies, and cost estimates, and submit them for approval by the client and by regulatory agencies. If the plans are approved, landscape architects prepare working drawings showing all existing and proposed features. They also outline in detail the methods of construction and draw up a list of necessary materials. Although many landscape architects supervise the installation of their design, some are involved in the construction of the site. In general, however, this work is done by the developer or landscape contractor.

Some landscape architects work on a wide variety of projects. Others specialize in a particular area, such as residential development, historic landscape restoration, waterfront improvement projects, parks and playgrounds, or shopping centers. Still others work in regional planning and resource management; feasibility, environmental impact, and cost studies; or site construction. Some landscape architects teach in colleges or universities.

Although most landscape architects do at least some residential work, relatively few limit their practice to landscape design for individual homeowners. The reason for this is because most residential landscape design projects are too small to provide suitable income compared with larger commercial or multiunit residential projects. For these kinds of smaller projects, some nurseries offer residential landscape design services. However, these services often are performed by less qualified landscape designers or others with training and experience in related areas.

Landscape architects who work for government agencies do similar work at national parks, government buildings, and other government-owned facilities. In addition, they may prepare environmental impact statements and studies on environmental issues such as public land-use planning. All landscape architects combine their knowledge of design, construction, plants, soils, and ecology to create their final designs.


Landscape architects spend most of their time in offices creating plans and designs, preparing models and cost estimates, doing research, or attending meetings. The remainder of their time is spent at the site. During the design and planning stage, landscape architects visit and analyze the site to verify that the design can be incorporated into the landscape. After the plans and specifications are completed, they may spend additional time at the site observing or supervising the construction. Those who work in large firms may spend considerably more time out of the office because of travel to sites outside the local area. Salaried employees in both government and landscape architectural firms usually work regular hours, although they may work overtime to meet a project deadline, whereas hours of self-employed landscape architects may vary from project to project.


Landscape architects hold more than 22,000 jobs nationwide. About one out of two salaried workers are employed in firms that provide landscape architecture services, with architectural and engineering firms employing most of the rest. The federal government also employs these workers, primarily in the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Defense, and Interior. About two of every five landscape architects are self-employed. Most landscape architects find work in urban and suburban areas throughout the country, although some landscape architects work in rural areas, particularly those in the federal government who plan and design parks and recreation areas.


According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of landscape architects is expected to increase as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2008. The level of new construction plays an important role in determining demand for landscape architects. Increased development of open space into recreation areas, wildlife refuges, and parks will also require the skills of landscape architects. Overall, anticipated growth in construction is expected to increase demand for landscape architectural services over the long run.

The recent passage of the Transportation Equity Act for the Twenty-First Century is expected to spur employment for landscape architects, particularly in state and local governments. This act, known as TEA21, provides funds for surface transportation and transit programs, such as interstate highway maintenance and environment-friendly pedestrian and bicycle trails. However, opportunities will vary from year to year and by geographic region, depending on local economic conditions. During a recession, when real estate sales and construction slow down, landscape architects may face layoffs and greater competition for jobs. The need to replace landscape architects who retire or leave the labor force for other reasons is expected to produce nearly as many job openings as employment growth.

An increasing proportion of office and other commercial and industrial development will occur outside cities. These projects are typically located on larger sites with more surrounding land that needs to be designed by a landscape architect, in contrast to urban development, which often includes little or no surrounding land.

Also, as the cost of land rises, the importance of good site planning and landscape design grows. Increasingly, new development is contingent upon compliance with environmental regulations and land use zoning, spurring demand for landscape architects to help plan sites and integrate man-made structures with the natural environment in the least disruptive way.

Budget tightening in the federal government might restrict hiring in the Forest Service and the National Park Service, agencies that traditionally employ the most landscape architects in the federal government. Instead, such agencies may increasingly contract out for landscape architecture services, providing additional employment opportunities in private landscape architecture firms.

In addition to the work related to new development and construction, landscape architects are expected to be involved in historic preservation, land reclamation, and refurbishment of existing sites. Because landscape architects can work on many different types of projects, they may have an easier time than other design professionals finding employment when traditional construction slows down. 

New graduates can expect to face competition for jobs in the largest and most prestigious landscape architecture firms. The number of professional degrees awarded in landscape architecture has remained steady over the years, even during times of fluctuating demand due to economic conditions. Opportunities will be best for landscape architects who develop strong technical and communication skills and a knowledge of environmental codes and regulations. Those with additional training or experience in urban planning increase their opportunities for employment in landscape architecture firms that specialize in site planning as well as landscape design. Many employers prefer to hire entry-level landscape architects who have internship experience, which significantly reduces the amount of on-the-job training required.


A bachelor’s or master’s degree in landscape architecture is usually necessary for entry into the profession. The bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture takes four or five years to complete.

There are two types of accredited master’s degree programs. The master’s degree as a first professional degree is a three-year program designed for students with an undergraduate degree in another discipline; this is the most common type. The master’s degree as the second professional degree is a two-year program for students who have a bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture and wish to teach or specialize in some aspect of landscape architecture, such as regional planning or golf course design.

In 1999, fifty-eight colleges and universities offered seventy-five undergraduate and graduate programs in landscape architecture that were accredited by the Landscape Architecture Accreditation Board of the American Society of Landscape Architects.

College courses required in this field usually include technical subjects such as surveying, landscape design and construction, landscape ecology, site design, and urban and regional planning. Other courses include history of landscape architecture, plant and soil science, geology, professional practice, and general management.

Many landscape architecture programs are adding courses that address environmental issues. In addition, most students at the undergraduate level take a year of prerequisite courses such as English, mathematics, and social and physical science. The design studio is an important aspect of many landscape architecture curriculums. Whenever possible, students are assigned real projects, providing them with valuable hands-on experience. While working on these projects, students become more proficient in the use of computer-aided design, geographic information systems, and video simulation.

In 1999, forty-six states required landscape architects to be licensed or registered. Licensing is based on the Landscape Architect Registration Examination (LARE), sponsored by the Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards and administered over a three-day period. Admission to the exam usually requires a degree from an accredited school plus one to four years of work experience, although standards vary from state to state.

Currently, seventeen states require the passage of a state examination in addition to the LARE to satisfy registration requirements. State examinations, which are usually one hour in length and completed at the end of the LARE, focus on laws, environmental regulations, plants, soils, climate, and any other characteristics unique to the state.

Because state requirements for licensure are not uniform, landscape architects may not find it easy to transfer their registration from one state to another. However, those who meet the national standards of graduating from an accredited program, serving three years of internship under the supervision of a registered landscape architect, and passing the LARE can satisfy requirements in most states. Through this means, a landscape architect can obtain certification from the Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards, and so gain reciprocity in other states.

In the federal government, candidates for entry positions should have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in landscape architecture. Unlike state requirements, the federal government does not require its landscape architects to be licensed.


People planning a career in landscape architecture should appreciate nature, enjoy working with their hands, and possess strong analytical skills. Creative vision and artistic talent are also desirable qualities. Good oral communication skills are essential; landscape architects must be able to convey their ideas to other professionals and clients and to make presentations before large groups. Strong writing skills are also valuable, as is knowledge of computer applications of all kinds, including word processing, desktop publishing, and spreadsheets. Landscape architects will use all these tools to develop presentations, proposals, reports, and land impact studies for clients, colleagues, and superiors. In addition, the ability to draft and design using CAD software is essential.

Many employers recommend that prospective landscape architects complete at least one summer internship with a landscape architecture firm to gain an understanding of the day-to-day operations of a small business, including how to win clients, generate fees, and work within a budget. In addition, on a day-to-day basis, a landscape architect may have to:

• Be attentive to client needs and take responsibility for timely, effective responses.

• Be multi-task oriented; capable of coordinating a variety of projects at one time.

• Be willing and capable of participating in making public presentations. 

• Have an understanding of municipal entitlement processes.

• Have good verbal, written, and graphic communication skills.

• Have a working knowledge of AutoCAD 2000, MS Word, and Excel applications.


In states where licensure is required, new hires may be called “apprentices” or “intern landscape architects” until they become licensed. Their duties vary depending on the type and size of employing firm. They may do project research or prepare working drawings, construction documents, or base maps of the area to be landscaped. Some are allowed to participate in the actual design of a project. However, interns must perform all work under the supervision of a licensed landscape architect.

Additionally, all drawings and specifications must be signed and sealed by the licensed landscape architect, who takes legal responsibility for the work. After gaining experience and becoming licensed, landscape architects usually can carry a design through all stages of development. After several years, they may become project managers, taking on the responsibility for meeting schedules and budgets, in addition to overseeing the project design; and later, associates or partners, with a proprietary interest in the business.


Many landscape architects are self-employed because start-up costs, after an initial investment in CAD software, are relatively low. Self-discipline, business acumen, and good marketing skills are important qualities for those who choose to open their own business. Even with these qualities, however, some may struggle while building a client base and reputation in the community.


Those with landscape architecture training also qualify for jobs closely related to landscape architecture, and may, after gaining some experience, become construction supervisors, land or environmental planners, or landscape consultants. Landscape architects use their knowledge of design, construction, land-use planning, and environmental issues to develop a landscape project. Others whose work requires similar skills are architects, surveyors, civil engineers, soil conservationists, and urban and regional planners. Landscape architects also know how to grow and use plants in the landscape. Botanists, who study plants in general, and horticulturists, who study ornamental plants as well as fruit, vegetable, greenhouse, and nursery crops, do similar work.

Landscape Design

A landscape designer works similarly to a landscape architect, but usually on residential or small commercial projects. Landscape designers are not technically certified, therefore, they cannot call themselves landscape architects. For those who do not wish to invest the number of years it takes to become a landscape architect, a career in landscape design could be the answer. You can become a landscape designer after completing a two-year associate’s degree in a landscape specialist program offered at a number of schools throughout the country. You should keep in mind that salaries are generally less for designers than architects. On the upside, those who are self-employed are not as limited as those employed by a landscape architecture firm.

Work in landscape design is available almost anywhere you see a tree, a shrub, or a lawn. Job seekers don’t have to scour help wanted ads or move across the country to find employment (although doing so could help broaden the scope). Just look around you at all the possibilities. Each of these settings requires a range of workers:

Athletic fields     
Botanical gardens     
Golf courses     
Historic areas     
Office buildings     
Private homes    
Public parks and gardens    
Recreational facilities    
Shopping malls    
Theme parks    
University campuses    

Historic Landscape Preservation and Landscape Archaeology

Historic landscape preservation is a field of growing interest throughout the country among managers of historic buildings and cultural and natural landscapes. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation in Williamsburg, Virginia, is one of the largest employers of landscape architects, designers, and related groundskeeping professionals.

Landscape archeology is a fairly new discipline. The purpose is to recover enough evidence to recreate a garden that existed on the site in a given historical period. Landscape archaeology uses traditional archaeological technique to recover the fence lines, planting beds, and other evidence.

Just as with gardening history, there is no particular university degree at this time in landscape archaeology. To become a landscape archaeologist you would have to follow a traditional program in anthropology and archaeology. Then, once you graduated and started getting on-the-job experience, you could specialize. For more information on historic landscape preservation and landscape archaeology.


An interiorscaper works with clients who want to create indoor environments filled with plants. The interiorscaper provides the design, oversees the installation and, if the contract specifies, maintains the health and attractiveness of the layout. Interiorscapers find work with large landscape contracting firms, with nurseries, or they can go it independently, renting space with adequate lighting in a warehouse where they can store their plants. In addition, some large land developers, rather than contracting the work out, hire permanent on-staff interiorscapers to take care of the malls or other complexes they own. Although private homeowners might utilize the services of an interiorscaper, most clients come from the commercial world.

Within the field of interiorscaping there are several different job titles. There are designers, estimators, and operations managers. Interiorscapers utilize the services of installers, delivery people, and job installation supervisors. Maintenance technicians take care of the plants, and maintenance foremen supervise the technicians. Nurseries that employ interiorscapers hire competent sales staff to deal with customers.

The chance for advancement is very good within the industry. With some experience under their belts, installers and maintenance technicians, for example, can move up to supervisory positions or into sales. Many people start out already established in the floral business, as florists or floral designers, for example, and interiorscaping then follows, becoming a natural extension of what they’re already doing. A flower shop owner, for example, might stock tropical houseplants for retail. Through walk-in customers from local office buildings, the florist could be requested to add installation and maintenance services.

Entry-level crew workers and technicians can start anywhere from $6 to $13 or $14 an hour. Someone with a new bachelor’s degree could expect to earn in the teens or 20s, depending on the region of the country. Designers and managers earn anywhere from $30,000 to $60,000 per year. 

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